Although not recognized as married, Israeli law offers people “known to the public” different rights and protections similar to those of married spouses. The decision as to whether a person is “known to the public” as married is based on factual evidence.  A person so recognized is entitled to various benefits, including protection of tenants` residences, social security benefits, and benefits resulting from the death of a spouse as a result of a criminal offence.  Such a person may also enjoy protection from domestic violence, as is a legally married person.  Given that Israel is in conflict with Arab countries, the fact that most Arabs are exempted from military service is not surprising and is accepted by public opinion. This is not the case for the Haredi population; We find a tension in it, because this subject comes up regularly. Secularists speak of equality and equitable sharing of commitments, while Haredim argue that learning Torah is a spiritual defense of the nation and helps preserve its Jewish identity. Other considerations in haredi camp are that military service will likely cause a culture shock for young men who have lived in a protected environment, a shock that could cause them to abandon their way of life. In a 2005 case, the Supreme Court recognized, through an expanded bank of nine judges, the right of gay women who live together and raised their children together to legally adopt the children of the other.